Clouds 101: Cumulonimbus calvus (Cb cal)

Genera: Cumunlonimbus (Cb) – Heavy and dense cloud, with a considerable verital extent, in the form of a mountain or huge towers. At least part of its upper portion is usually smooth, or fibruous or striated, and nearly always flattened; this part often spreads out in the shape of anvil or vast plume. Under the base of this cloud which is often very dark, there are frequently low ragged clouds either merged with it or not, and percipitation sometimes in the form of virga .

Rod: Cumulonimbus (Cb) -tezak i gust oblak sa znatnim vertikalnim razvojem u obliku planine ili ogromnih tornjeva. Barem jedan dio gornjeg dijela je vecinom gladak, vlaknast ili izbrazdan i skoro uvijek je poravnan.Taj dio se cesto siri u obliku nakovnja ili sirokog pera. Ispod baze ovog oblaka, koja je cesto jako tamna, se nalaze iskidani niski oblaci koji su nekada spojeni sa njim, nekada nisu. I prisutne su padavine ponekada u obliku virgi (kisnih zavjesa). 

Species: Calvus (cal) – is a moderately tall cumulonimbus cloud which is capable of precipitation, but has not yet reached the height where it forms into a cumulonimbus capillatus (fibrous-top) or cumulonimbus incus (anvil-top). Cumulonimbus calvus clouds develop from cumulus congestus, and its further development under auspicious conditions will result in cumulonimbus capillatus. This cloud consists mainly of water droplets. By definition of cumulonimbus cloud, at its top water droplets are transformed into ice crystals, but for cumulonimbus calvus content of ice crystals is small and freezing is in early stage, so cloud top still looks round and puffy.Cumulonimbus calvus is characterized by distinctive rounded shape and relatively sharp edges of its top area, unlike cumulonimbus incus or cumulonimbus capillatus, which have cirriform tops. Developing cumulonimbus calvus loses sharp outlines of the top as more water droplets transform into ice crystals. 

Vrsta: Calvus (cal) – je umjereno razvijen i visok kumulonimbus oblak koji moze proizvesti padavine ali jos uvijek nije dostigao visinu u kojoj se razvija i pretvara u kumulonimbus capillatus (sa vlaknastim vrhom) ili kumulonimbus incus (u obliku nakovnja). Kumulonimbus calvus se razvija iz oblaka kumulus kongestusa a u povoljnim uvjetima se razvija u kumulonimbus capillatus. Ovaj oblak se vecinski sastoji od kapljica vode. Po definiciji kumulonimbusnog oblaka, pri njegovom vrhu su se vodene kapljice preobrazile u kristale leda, ali za kumulonimbus calvusa je sadrzaj kristala leda jos uvijek mali i zaledjivanje je jos u pocetnoj fazi, zato oblak jos uvijek djeluje zaobljeno i naduveno. Cumulonimbus calvus je prepoznatljivog zaobljenog oblika i relativno ostrih ivica pri vrhu, za razliku od kumulonimbusa incus-a ili capillatus-a, koji imaju vlaknasti vrh. Tokom razvoja se kumulonimbusu calvusu gube ostri obrisi pri vrhu dok se sve vise vodenih kapljica transformise u ledene kristale

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Definition of a cloud: 

A cloud is a visible aggregate of minute particles of water or ice, or of both, in the free air. This aggregate may include larger particles of water or ice and particles, such as those present in fumes, smoke or dust.

Definicija oblaka: Oblak je vidljivo agregatno stanje zasicenih cestica vode, leda ili vode i leda, koje se nalaze slobodne u zraku. Mogu biti u pitanju i krupnije cestice vode i leda i cestice poput onih koje su prisutne u dimu, isparenjima ili prasini. 

Appearance of clouds:

The appearance of a cloud is determined by the nature, sizes, number and distribution in space of its constituent particles. Appearance is best described in terms of dimensions, shape, structure, texture, luminance and colour of the cloud.

Pojava oblaka tj. njihov izgled je odredjen karakterom, velicinama, kolicinom i raspodjelom cestica koje ga sacinjavaju kroz prostor. Izgled oblaka je najbolje opisan u kroz dimenzije, oblik, strukturu, teksturu, osvjetljenost i boju oblaka. 

Classification of clouds:

A classification of the charcteristic forms of clouds, in terms of “genera”, “species” and “varieties” has been established by the WMO(World Meteorological Organisation).

Klasifikacija karakteristicnih oblika oblaka u smislu “rodova”, “vrsta” i “podvrsta” je ostvarena od strane WMO (World Meteorological Organisation) tj. Svjetske Meteoroloske Organizacije.

(I) Genera 

The classification is essentially based on 10 main groups, called genera, which are mutually exclusive, that is to say, a given cloud can belong to one genus only. The genera are;

Podjela na rodove je ustvari podjela na 10 osnovnih grupa zvanih rodovi koji su medjusobno posebni, sto znaci da odredjeni oblak moze da pripada samo jednom rodu. Podjela na rodove je slijedeca: 

Cirrus – Ci 

Cirrocumulus – Cc 

Cirrostratus – Cs 

Altocumulus -Ac 

Altostratus -As 

Nimbostratus -Ns 

Stratocumulus – Sc 

Stratus – St 

Cumulus – Cu 

Cumulonimbus – Cb 

(II) Species

Obseved peculiarities in the shape of clouds and differences in their internal structure have led to the subdivision of most of the cloud genera into species.

Osmotrene pojedinosti u obliku oblaka i njihovih razlika u unutarnjoj strukturi su doveli do podjele vecine rodova oblaka na vrste.

(III) Varieties

Clouds may exhibit special characteristics which determine their variety. These characteristics are related to the different arrangements of the could elements.

Oblaci mogu iskazati posebne karakteristike koje ce da odrede njihove podvrste. Te karakteristike su u vezi sa razlicitim rasporedom elementa oblaka.

(IV) Supplementary cloud features 

Dopunske odlike i oblaci pratioci:

1. incus – inc

2. mamma – mam

3. virga – vir

4. praecipitatio – pra

5. arcus – arc

6. tuba – tub

7. pileus – pil

8. velum – vel

9. pannus – pan

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